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Tardor 2004

La polÝtica lingŘÝstica en els nous estats membres de la Uniˇ Europea (i II)

Minority Protection and Language Policy in the Czech Republic
 per Carolin Zwilling
versiˇ en catalÓ This article gives an overview of the actual situation of national minorities living in the Czech Republic focusing on the State’s language policy. Starting from a legally not binding “Concept to Issues Concerning National Minorities in the Czech Republic” in 1994, this new member state developed a largely satisfactory legal framework for the protection of national minorities during the last ten years preparing the accession to the European Union.


Minority protection and linguistic rights in Lithuania
 per Markko Kallonen
versiˇ en catalÓ This paper presents the Lithuanian legislative framework with regard to linguistic rights and minority protection. First the article gives a general overview on minorities in Lithuania, then the focus is moved to the legal framework of the country as it stands today and finally, the article seeks to illustrate the impact which Lithuania’s accession to the European Union had on the status of its minorities and on the linguistic policy its government leads. In the end of the article I will shortly sum up and analyse the current situation.


Slovenian Legislative System for Minority Protection: Different Rights for Old and New Minorities
 per Antonija Petricusic
versiˇ en catalÓ The three constitutionally recognized autochthonous national minorities in Slovenia (Hungarians, Italians and Roma) enjoy a privileged status in comparison with the other minority ethnic groups that originate from the territories of former Yugoslavia and who greatly outnumbered those traditional national communities. National legislation, case law as well as the practices of national authorities that should provide for a successful accommodation of minority ethnic groups are examined in this paper in order to gain understanding whether Slovenia's accession to the European Union has enhanced the level of a minority protection in the country.


Language policy in Latvia
 per Giovanni Poggeschi
versiˇ en catalÓ

Latvia has been accepted in the European "club" the 1st May 2004. To fulfill the European criteria, Latvia has been forced to change some of its provisions about citizenship. The linguistic legislation, which is another pillar of the juridical system, and which tends to create a monolingual society (at least in the public sphere) has been also declared totally legitimate.

The (re)building of one Nation State must foresee a system where the founding nation is prevailing on the others, nevertheless minorities must be protected and respected. The author of this essay justifies the linguistic measures, enshrined in the State Language Law of 1999 and in the Reform of Education of 1998 and criticizes the citizenship provisions (though they have been bettered) which exclude many legal residents from the political decision-making.


Linguistic policy and national minorities in Romania
 per Sergiu Constantin
versiˇ en catalÓ Basic principles of Romanian linguistic policy as regards national minorities have been stipulated in Constitution and special laws. Although is too early to declare its model it can be considered an example of good practice in a highly sensitive matter. After a short presentation of the background, the paper analyzes the main features of minority language policy in Romania from a legal perspective. It deals in detail with the Constitutional and national laws which regulate the status of the official language, education in minority language, use of minority language in public administration and police forces,    minority language and mass-media. Several considerations regarding the situation of Roma minority are added to complete the image before the conclusions that can be drawn at the moment.