inquire about the opinion of the adult population regarding the use and knowledge of
Catalan in a variety of economic activities and in particular in those related to daily
life. The survey was carried out by GABISE based on a large sample (4,021 people) during
the last months of the year 1999.
2.2 Joint studies with other language planning bodies
section I bring together two kinds of study: those in cooperation with the Consorci per a
la Normalització Lingüística [Consortium for Linguistic Normalization] and those
carried out together with other bodies of language planning that deal with other
The two most
relevant pieces of research of the first type, both for their conception and application
tool enabling one to detect the level of Catalan use in particular organizations or
associations that wish to initiate a process of linguistic normalization or to evaluate
progress in this domain. It is based on an indicator system made up of six factors and it
can be easily used by means of the Excel spreadsheet. It has been in use since 1996 in
more than 125 organizations (Escolà, 1996).
tool enabling us to know the level of linguistic "supply" in Catalan in a
particular geographical area. Up to now, it has been used in the towns and cities of Santa
Coloma de Gramenet, Tremp, Manresa, Lloret, Tarragona and Barcelona (Ciutat Vella or Old
City). It studies the offer of Catalan (either institutional and non-institutional) by
gathering information through 124 indicators structured into 5 sectors. The graphic
representation is achieved by means of specific software.
have as common features that they are easy to apply, provide very clear graphic
presentation of results and can to be applied at different points in time in order to
determine change over time. Although we already knew that in all facets of the public
administration and the school system, use of Catalan is very high, these instruments made
it possible to quantify such differences in a contrastable way and to describe the
evolution over periods of time.
With regard to
the second type of research, carried out in cooperation with foreign institutions working
in other sociolinguistic contexts, several studies have been completed and subsequently
submitted to the European Union. The following are the most relevant:
2. Language Use Surveys: a sociolinguistic approach to the minority languages in the
European Union, a study carried out within the framework of the project
"Networks and Minority Language Ability and Use" commissioned to DGLP by the DG
XXII of the Commission. Language use was studied for Catalan in Majorca, Occitan in
Midi-Pyrénées and Franco-Provençal in the Aosta Valley.
["Whitsun"] Report: knowledge and language use among bilingualised
Spanish-speaking young people in Catalonia, study carried out within the framework of
the project "Developing Policies to Improve the Conversion of Language Competence
into Language Use among Young Adult Groups", commissioned by the DG XXIII of the
European Commission. Xavier Vila and Jaume Farràs are the authors of the study which was
also carried out in Galicia, Friesland, Basque Country, Ireland and Wales. The aim was to
study by means of in-depth interviews the differences between the behaviour of those
youngsters who adopted the planned language (Catalan, Basque, Welsh
) as usual
language and that of those who did not.
2: Extension of the study to Austria, Finland and Sweden / Ampliació de l'estudi
Euromosaic sobre llengües minoritzades als nous estats membres (Suècia, Finlàndia i
Àustria). This study, coordinated by M. Strubell (Barcelona), P. Nelde (Brussels)
and G. Williams (Bangor), was commissioned by the DG XXII of the European Commission. It
is an extension of the report submitted in 1995 on the production and reproduction of
minority language groups in the EU.
have enabled us to establish differences and resemblances across several European minority
language communities, to pool activities and experiences of language policy with experts
and researchers, and to share methodologies.
2.3 Specific or sectorial studies
In order to
set up a language policy it is necessary to have information both about general and
specific aspects. We present these studies in two main sections:
studies in the socio-economic sector using an observation methodology which is not usual
in Catalan sociolinguistics:
A series of
surveys on the advertisements in the streets and shop signs and notices (both commercial
and institutional) in order to gauge the use of languages in this domain in Barcelona,
carried out in 1997 and 1999 by IPSOS-ECO Consulting. In 1999 the study was extended to
the cities of Badalona, Girona, Granollers, Lleida, Sabadell and Tarragona, by means of a
study led by Josep M. Aragay and Anna Collado, of the University of Barcelona.
of language use in labelling in Barcelona in 1997, with a report by Joan Solé i Camardons
and Joan M. Romaní analyzing fieldwork done by J. M. Aragay and Juli Sabaté of the
University of Barcelona.
language use in supermarkets and shopping malls in Catalonia carried out by ECO Consulting
in 1998 with a specific methodology determineded by the ISC. The same study was carried
out once again in the year 2000 to pinpoint the differences and the evolution of the
situation. In 2001 a similar study was done in supermarkets and shopping malls in the
districts of Anoia, Bages, Berguedà and Cerdanya, commissioned by the Centre Linguistic
language use in petrol stations in Catalonia, carried out by J. Farràs and J. L. Bosch,
of the Centre Universitari en Sociolingüística i Comunicació (CUSC-UB), to evaluate the
language use in a service widely used by more or less the whole population.
Studies of several employers associations implemented by means of a survey of senior
management and others in positions of authority:
language use in health centres associated to ACES (Associació Catalana
dEstabliments Sanitaris) [Catalan Association of Health Centres] carried out in 1998
by Josep M. Aragay and Rosa Mur.
language use in companies associated to the Institut de lEmpresa Familiar (IEF)
[Institute of Family Businesses] carried out by Institut DEP. Although these companies
cover very different types of activities, they have one feature in common: the majority of
the capital belongs to a family settled in Catalonia Study of language use in wine
producing companies carried out by Institut DEP, in cooperation with the UCEVE and the
UVIPE, the two main employers associations.
language use in insurance companies associated to the Unió Catalana dEntitats
Asseguradores i Reasseguradores (UCEAC) [Catalan Union of Insurance and Reinsurance
Companies] carried out by Institut DEP (Institut DEP, 2002).
language use and opinions in companies associated to Confederació Empresarial de la
Comarca de Terrassa (CECOT) [Employers Confederation of the District of Terrassa].
a study of language use in mineral water producing companies carried out by Instituto DYM,
SA, in a sector where, while there are few companies, the latters' products are widely
consumed by most if not all the population.
studies provide guidance in improving language policy actions aimed at increasing the use
of Catalan in these particular domains.
2.4 Studies by students with awards
for students of the Autonomous University of Barcelona at the Institute of Catalan
Sociolinguistics started in 1996. During the 200 hours-long stay they carry out very
specific research under the direction of the experts of the ISC. Topics include: the
presence of Catalan in the movies (1996 and 2001); in TV channels broadcasting in
Catalonia (2001); in advertisements in Catalonian newspapers (1997 and 2002); in radio
broadcasting (2001); and social movements and militant groups in favour of Catalan (1999
2.5 Advice to other bodies of language planning
In addition to
the management of the research directly promoted by the Directorate General for Language
policy, advice has been provided to different Catalan ministries, offices of the
Consortium for Linguistic Normalization or sector-specific linguistic services. So, in
1997 we cooperated with the linguistic service of the Lawyers Association of
Catalonia in the carrying out of a study on the monitoring of the language policy
programme in lawyers offices. In 2001 we cooperated with the Ministry of Labour to
design a survey aimed at evaluating language use in vocational study centres and
subsequently effecting specific actions to increase the use of Catalan.
2.6 Awards and grants
In order to
promote sociolinguistic research, the Directorate General for Language Policy awarded
grants to students from 1988 up to 1995. This action of support to research was changed
and reconverted to awards for studies already completed. From 1994 to 2000, awards were
given in four domains of research: the Antoni M. Badia i Margarit Award for empirical
research; the Tomàs Garcés Award for work on linguistic legislation and official use of
language; the Valentí Amirall Award for proposals and experience in language planning and
language revitalisation, and, lastly, the Bernat Fenollar Award for academic studies in
sociolinguistics and language planning. From 2002 onward, these are awarded jointly with
the Institut dEstudis Catalans
(IEC). Among the successful applicants, we should highlight the following:
llengües minoritzades dEuropa. Una aproximació (Bernat Fenollar Award), by
Àngela Cotano, published in 2000 by 3 i 4. This is the first commercial work in Catalan
to appear on this topic.
i legislacions a Europa. Primera aproximació a les influències del marc legal en els
processos de substitució o normalització de les llengües (Tomàs Garcés
Award,1994) by Oriol Ramon.
utilitat del bilingüisme, by Josep Maria Colomer, professor of Political Sciences at
the Autonomous University of Barcelona (runner up for the Tomàs Garcés Award, 1995),
published by Edicions 62 under the title La utilitat del bilingüisme: una proposta de
pluralitat linguistica a Catalunya, Espanya i Europa).
Dissemination of results
dissemination of the results of the studies can be achieved in a number of different ways:
- On the one
hand, depending on the audience or the sector analyzed: in the case of a study on a
specific sector, the results are publicly presented to the association which is the
representative of the companies or professionals working in that particular sector, as
happened with the ACES, IEF, UCEAC and CECOT studies.
On the other hand, there is general dissemination via articles in
the journals of the DGLP or by means of a specific publication,
as was the case for the study on the 1996 linguistic census. The
most relevant publications as well as the full list of the articles
published in Noves
SL and Llengua
i Ús are listed in the bibliography. (2)
All the works
and studies promoted by the DGLP are furthermore listed in the common catalogue of
specialized libraries of the government of Catalonia [BEG, Biblioteques Especialitzades de
la Generalitat] (http://beg.gencat.cat/vtls/catalan/vtls-basic.html)
and can be consulted at the Centre of Documentation in Sociolinguistics (CDS) of the DGLP.
Those that have been published can also be consulted in the main public and university
libraries although the majority of them are unpublished: they are therefore only available
at the CDS at the headquarters of the DGLP.
make consultation and the dissemination easier, the CDS has created
a data base (BETT, Base de dades destudis i treballs tècnics
promoguts per la DGPL) [Data Base of Studies and Technical Works
promoted by the DGLP] which besides listing the references of each
and every work, allows the user to consult the most relevant sections
these works on the screen: title page introduction, methodology,
model of survey or questionnaire used and conclusions, as well as
information about data gathering process, the sample, the domain
of application and other data of interest. These data can be consulted
at the CDS and from next year they will be available on the Internet