|3.3 Indicator of use
changed compared to the 1995 survey as shown in the table below:
results from the comparison between the two surveys are as follows:
nationalities, Andorrans and Spaniards who have Catalan as mother tongue are those who use
most Catalan; Spanish is the main language used by Spaniards who have Spanish as mother
tongue; the same applies to French, and Portuguese use Portuguese in the same way as
age, young people aged from 15 to 25 years and people over 50 use more Catalan although
the use of Catalan decreases and the use of Spanish increases in all age groups.
Linguistic uses in the relations of citizens with the public administration
administration was still the domain where Catalan was most widely used. The population of
Portuguese nationality still used more Spanish than Catalan but since 1995 the use of
Catalan increased significantly in this group. In general, the percentage of people using
or receiving Spanish always decreased, while the bilingualism Catalan-Spanish increased
compared to 1995.
3.5 Linguistic uses in the relations with the socio-economic domain
In all the
analysed situations except in banks, insurance companies and service agencies - the percentage of people using always Catalan decreased and
Catalan-Spanish bilingualism increased. Gathering together the domains more or less
favourables for the use of Catalan, we arrived at the following results:
favourable domains: banks/insurance companies/ and service agency and
intermediate domains: restaurants and shops;
unfavourable domains: hairdresser, taxi/bus, shopping centres and bars/pubs/discos.
the classification obtained in 1995, one domain shifted from intermediate to unfavourable:
Image of the
campaign launched in the hairdressers sector
during the year 2000 as a result of the 1999 survey.
fundamental factors on which mainly depend the linguistic attitudes of the interviewees in
the socio-economic sector are nationality and mother tongue:
general and Spaniards who have Catalan as mother tongue always use more Catalan but when
they are in unfavourable situations they use it with less frequency. Those Andorrans who
have Catalan as mother tongue use more Catalan in all situations while those of
Spanish-speaking origin adapt themselves more to the language of the interlocutor. The use
of Catalan in unfavourable situations has increased among Spaniards who have Catalan as
who have Spanish as mother tongue maintain Spanish as the main language used, except in
situations favourables to the use of Catalan. In intermediate situations, they use less
Catalan than in 1995.
of French nationality, we can establish two separate groups according to the attitudes: a
group consisting of people speaking Catalan everywhere and another one made up of people
who speak French in favourable situations and shift to Spanish in the unfavourable.
use mainly Spanish in all domains of the socio-economic sector.
indicator presenting a greater variation in 1999 was that of Spanish(2), insofar as it increased 8.2
points: from 50 in 1995 to 58.2 in 1999. Catalan decreased 2.4. points: from 56.3 in 1995
to 53.9 in 1999. From 1995 to 1999 the relation between the linguistic indicators of
Catalan and Spanish reversed so that Spanish now holds the first position.
analysing the decisive factors related to the differences between indicators according to
population groups, we found once again that nationality and mother tongue were the main
variables determining the score obtained by each language:
linguistic indicator of Catalan was very high among Andorrans and Spaniards who have
Catalan as mother tongue and very low among Spaniards who have Spanish as mother tongue,
French and Portuguese;
Portuguese were associated with a very high indicator of Spanish if we take into account
that it is not their mother tongue;
linguistic indicator of Catalan was slightly higher for French people compared to the
survey of 1995.
3.8 Outcomes and implications for the Andorran language policy
gathered during the first survey already indicated that the Andorran linguistic
legislation was inadequate in regulating the use of the official language of the country
given that demographic changes are causing a gradually decline in its use.
survey showed the group of speakers who had Catalan (the sole official language of the
country) as initial language was no longer the largest group as it had been outnumbered by
the Spanish-speaking group.
In its session
of December 16, 1999 the Andorran government approved with no vote against it and only one
abstention (more due to formal reasons than to its contents) the law on the regulation of
the use of the official language, which came into force in January 2000.
which gathered all the previous linguistic legislation and broadened its scope, proved one
of the most efficient tools in promoting the use of Catalan during 2001 and 2002.
situation of Catalan shows that the Act needs to be expanded to be more effective in many
domains. The present stage typically involves the drafting of decrees aiming to bring
regulation of the official language to bear on each specific sector of the Andorran
year 2001 various informative and awareness raising actions were undertaken to explain to
the Andorran public the coming into force in January 2002 of a transitional provision of
the Act by which all companies should be obliged by law to ensure communication with
customers in Catalan.
As expected it
is difficult to implement this provision and it will take time and efforts to enforce it.
Nevertheless, the overwhelming majority of companies owners have been informed of
this and are aware they can be fined if they do not apply the law. This is why an
increasing number of companies tell their employees to start the conversation in Catalan
and to make efforts to use it. On the other hand, Catalan-speaking residents are more
aware of their use of Catalan than earlier and many of them who five years ago would have
spoken in Spanish now persist in speaking the official language -despite the obstacles
they may have to face- in their relations with the socio-economic sector.
labour problems Andorra has to face and the fact that fewer Catalans are going there to
live and work makes it even more difficult to comply with legal requirements in the domain
of customer service. Enrolment for Catalan courses for adults
has increased significantly over the last years and there are to organise informative
actions aimed at new immigrants. The experts in language policy do not discount the
proposal of further actions in the field of language and immigration.
4. The young people
4.1. Analysis of results and publication of Linguistic competences and uses among
the school population of Andorra
For the last
two years, the service of language policy has focused its activities on gathering and
disseminating data on young people and has published the book Knowledge and linguistic
uses among the school population of Andorra (2002), which shows the results of a study
commissioned by the Centre of Catalan Culture of Andorra with the support of UNESCO. It is
also a quantitative study carried out by means of interviews to a representative sample of
the school population ranging from 8 to 16 during the 2000-2001 school year. The total
number of pupils interviewed was of 5,221 and the extracted sample, with a margin of error
of 4%(3), was made up of 556 pupils. The
samples were selected proportionally according to the education systems, the number of
pupils in each school and pupils' age. In the following pages we sum up the results of
pupils attend schools of the French education system, 22.7% in Catholic schools (Sant
Ermengol, Janer and Sagrada Família), 20.5% in Andorran schools and 18.1% in Spanish
schools. (In the analysis related to the education system we always consider Catholic
schools which use Catalan as the language of instruction as a separate item
from the Spanish where Spanish is the language of instruction due to the
difference in the linguistic approach.
by education systems according nationality: