This result is that 72% of interviewees
answered the survey in Catalan a much higher value than the "real" use of
Catalan, and than the value of people who consider their language to be Catalan, or both
Catalan and Spanish (which, added together, represent around 60% of the population of
It is very clear
then that inertia and letting oneself be carried along, so long as the context is
favourable for Catalan, can substantially increase the indices of use.
If we intersect
the language in which the interview was conducted with linguistic identity, the result is
Language of interview and linguistic identity. 2000. Percentages
Thus, whilst almost all Catalan-speakers were interviewed in Catalan, not all
Spanish-speakers did so in Spanish: a significant percentage, 36.5%, had theirs in
Catalan. This means that they can speak it and that, in a favourable context, they could
use it. Bilingual individuals, as is the norm, are even more likely to adhere to this
To conclude, it
would be useful to summarise our findings. We will do so with the help of a final diagram
using the main results of this section on non-domestic use (although we have also included
data on oral competence), along with the variable that we have most used to make
intersections: linguistic identity.
Competence, use and linguistic identity. 2000. Percentages
We shall now move
on to make our observations.
1) The difference
in use, in line with linguistic identity, is very clear in all cases: competence, use in
certain situations, the language of the last conversation or that of the interview.
Catalan-speakers always come in first place, followed by bilingual individuals with the
Spanish-speakers bringing up the rear.
1) Except in the
case of Catalan-speakers (for whom competence and the interview language are absolutely
level), the data is grouped into three blocks. The highest indices are offered by
linguistic competence, followed by the interview language and finally use in a range of
situations and the language of the last conversation.
2) In short, if
we had to choose an index of use of Catalan, the best indicator would be the average of
two values, with an approximate value of 5 points, if we opted for a scale of 0 to 10.
3) This index,
although strongly determined by linguistic identity, as we said earlier, is not entirely
so. Hence, approximately 20% of Catalan-speakers do not mainly use Catalan in their
conversations, whilst between 10% and 15% of Spanish-speakers do use it. The reasons for
these discrepancies is an important topic for investigation.
4) It is also
interesting to point out the relationship between linguistic competence and the language
of the interview. If everybody answered the question "do you speak Catalan?"
correctly, then the two figures should correspond. Indeed, this is the case of the
Catalan-speakers, a close to perfect correspondence. However, in the other two cases, the
index of competence greatly exceeds the interview language: 17.5 points for bilinguals and
18.8 points for Spanish-speakers. All of this seems to indicate therefore that the social
prestige of Catalan makes people, in these cases, overestimate their knowledge of Catalan.
5) Finally, it is
a worth comparing the "real" use (the average of the last two data) with the
interview language. Remember that we have characterised this index as one that could occur
if all those who speak Catalan found themselves in a very favourable context for using it.
We could call it "potential use". Let us think for a moment about the possible
increase in the index of use of Catalan if a situation of this nature did occur. It
seems well worthwhile to take some time over it. However, thats another story and,
sadly, well have to leave it here for now.