In the corpus we analysed we found
these examples of concessive argumentation in the speech acts:
(2) C- És
cert que hem pujat més que la mitjana europea, però hem pujat menys que la mitjna
espanyola. (It's true that we have risen more than the European average (implicit
conclusion: we have risen more than the Spanish average) but we have risen
less than the Spanish average.)
(3) Mr- 23
anys de govern donen per molt, però els darrers anys no han donat de si. (23 years
in government yield a great deal [of experience, etc]) (implicit conclusion: the last
few years have yielded a great deal) but the last few years have not yielded a great
(4) C- No s'ha
aconseguit el millor finançament, en canvi sí que hem aconseguit ofensives
directes. (We didn't secure the best financing (implicit conclusion. we didn't achieve
anything), but on the other hand we did achieve the best direct offensives.)
(5) Ms- Tenia
tot el dret de dir-me que no volia pactar amb mi, però en el fons li interessava
que haguéssim de pactar amb el PP. (You was quite within your rights to tell me you
didn't want to form a political alliance with me (implicit conclusion: You didn't think
it was possible to form an alliance with me), but in the final analysis it
suited you for us to have to form an alliance with the PP (Partit Popular).)
Nosaltes no podem assumir la responsabilitat de totes les coses que havia fet vostè, no
només de les bones, sinó de les dolentes. (We can't take responsibility for all the
things you've done (implicit conclusion: it was easy to do so because they were all
good), not just the good things, but also the bad things.)
(7) Ms- No
sempre l'entenc però vaja procuro estar informat. (I don't always understand you
(implicit conclusion: I'm not informed about what you are saying) but I
certainly do seek to keep informed.)
(8) C- La
volem més plena, però de moment és compartida. (We want it to be fuller
[sovereignty for Catalonia] (implicit.conclusion: sovereignty can be full) but
at the moment it is shared.)
(9) Ms- Ja li
he dit que tenia tot el dret, Ø simplement subratllo que va dir que no. (I already said
that you were within your rights (implicit conclusion: even though you were within your
rights you shouldn't have said no), I'm simply (9) underlying the fact that you
(10) C- No ho
diu vostè, Ø ho diu el senyor Duran Lleida, que va a la seva llista.
(It's not you who says that (implicit conclusion: as you head the list of your party's
candidates you lay down the guidelines for what your coalition says) it's Mr Duran
Lleida who's on your list who says that.)
occurred among the interventions:
vostès no van complir les resolucions que obligaven a fer públiques les balances
Mr- Però vostè està d'acord de que es faci ara?
(Ms- You [i.e.your party] did not comply with the resolutions that made it obligatory to
publish tax entries (implicit conclusion: you maintain your position as in the past
with respect to tax entries).
Mr- But you agree to having that done now?)
(12) Ms- La
volem més plena, però de moment és compartida.
Mr- Aquesta discusió sobre la sobirania no és el que interessa més a la gent,
(Ms- We want it to be fuller [sovereignty for Catalonia] (implicit. conclusion: the
issue of sovereignty is of great interest to people).
Mr- This discussion on sovereignty isn't what most interests people, obviously.)
orientation, which also contains only two speech acts or interventions. One is an
argument in favour of r and the other is precisely the argumentative conclusion r.
Thus the conclusion motivates the argument simplicity by being expressed.
don't want to come, so don't come.
1 serves as
the argument for 2. "As you don't want to come, don't do so". In the corpus we
found the following examples of consecutive orientation:
(13) Mr- Ho he
dit als citutadans, perquè ells ho veuen.
(I said so to the citizens (conclusion), because they can see it (argument).)
(14) Mr- Si
crees un enemic i no el vences, doncs aleshores la situació és la pitjor de totes.
(If you create an enemy and you don't defeat it (argument), then the situation is
the worst of all (conclusion).)
(15) C- Hem
estat un partit responsable, amb una actitud positiva i constructiva, per això ens
vam abstenir en el debat d'investidura de Jordi Pujol, en gest de responsabilitat.
(We have been a responsible party, with a positive and constructive attitude (argument), for
that reason we abstained from the debate on Jordi Pujol's investiture, as a gesture of
(16) Mr- Si
hi hagués la possibilitat que quedés bloquejat el canvi, Catalunya estaria davant
(If the process of change could possibly have become blocked (argument), Catalonia
would have been faced with a serious problem (conclusion).)
(17) Ms- Li
recordo amb el to més amical possible, perquè no em vull barallar amb vostè, ni
(I remind you in the most amicable tone possible (conclusion), because I don't want
a fight with you, far from it (argument).)
(18) Ms- A
vostè li interessa que haguéssim de tenir acords amb el Partit Popular perquè vostè
tenia l'expectiva de guanyar uns quants vots.
(You would benefit from us having to form an alliance with the Partido Popular
(conclusion) because you stand to gain a few votes (argument).)
(19) Mr- Si
vostès no aproven l'Estatut, també l'aprovarem.
(If you [i.e. your party] don't pass the Estatut [(Statute of Catalan
Autonomy], then we shall pass it too.)
Acabi, acabi, perquè no està dient res de nou.
(Get on with it, get on with it (conclusion), because you're not saying anything
(21) Ms- Crec
que podem fer coses junts i, per tant, jo protegiré la relació que tenim
(I think we can do things together (argument), and for that reason I'll protect the
relationship that we have (conclusion).)
Estigui tranquil, que el senyor Mas ja li acaba de dir que el seu Estatut no està
per la sobirania.
(Relax (conclusion), Mr Mas has just told you that his Statute isn't to do with
orientation, which operates with three constituents, instead of two.
One in favour of the impliciticit conclusion r, another in favour of -r (minus r), and a
third which acts as a conclusion, which is orientated towards -r.
weather man said it would rain, but she didn't believe him.
As it turned
out, she didn't get wet.
orientates us towards the implicitit conclusion "she will get wet", while 2
orientates us towards "she won't get wet". The third act, however, goes in the
same direction as 2; in the end she doesn't get wet. (10)
orientations are not the most usual in our corpus, perhaps because we are working with
speech acts, in which context they are complex and difficult to interpret. Nonetheless we
did find the following:
Nosaltres no podíem assumir la responsabiltat de totes les coses que havia fet vostè. No
només de les bones sinó de les dolentes. Les dolentes se les queden vostès.
(We can't assume responsibility for all the things that you've done (conclusion: we
didn't want the good things). Not just the good things, but the bad things (argument 2:
we didn't want the good things). You (and your party) can keep the bad things
(argument 1. of the impliciticit conclusion: we keep the good ones).)
(24) Ms- Tenia
tot el dret a fer-ho (dir que no) però en el fons ja li interessava que haguéssim de
mantenir acords amb el Partit Popular, perquè d'aquesta manera, probablement, vostè
tenia l'expectativa, no pensant en el país sinó pensant en Esquerra, molt legítimament,
de guanyar uns quans vots.
(You had every right to do so (say no) (argument 1 of the impliciticit conclusion: for
the good of the country) but at bottom you would benefit from our having to form
alliances with the Partido Popular (argument 2: for the good of your party) because
that way, probably, you stood to gain a few votes, not thinking of the country but, quite
rightly, thinking of Esquerra (party) (conclusion: for the good of your party).)
(25) Mr- És
que, si vostès no l'aproven (l'Estatut) també l'aprovarem, i l'aprovarem per gran
(The fact is, if you don't pass it (Statute) (argument 1 of the impliciticit conclusion:
the statute won't be passed) then we will (argument 2: the statute will be passed)
and we'll do so by a big majority (conclusion: the statute will be passed).)
(26) Ms- No
sempre l'entenc, perquè de tant en tant el dilluns diu una cosa, el dimarts en diu una
altra, el dimecres una altra, el dijous una altra, però vaja jo procuro estar informat.
(I don't always understand you (conclusion: it's difficult to follow you) because
from time to time on Monday you say one thing, on Tuesday another, on Wednesday another,
on Thursday another (argument 1 of the implicit conclusion: you often change your mind,
it's difficult to follow you), but I certainly do seek to keep informed (argument 2:
I manage to follow you).)
(27) Mr- Això
que vostè reclama, vostès no hi creuen quan governen. Miri, que era fàcil durant els
anys que vostès van governar perquè tenien totes les resolucions aprovades en aquest
sentit. Per què no ho van fer? Per la mateixa raó que el senyor Rato, perquè no volen
conflictes entre les autonomies.
(What you are calling for, your party didn't believe in when you are in power (conclusion:
you don't believe in autonmous government). Look how easy it would have been when you
were in government because you had all the necessary motions passed (argument 1 of the
implicit conclusion: you could have shown that you believed in it). Why didn't you
do it? For the same reason as Mr. Rato, because you didn't want trouble with the other
autonomous regional governments (argument 2: you don't believe in it).)
(28) Ms- Amb
vostès ens va costar déu i ajuda treure el 15% de l'IRPF. ¿I ara vostè diu que no
tenim el millor sistema de finançament, quan tenim el 33% de l'IRPF, el 35% de l'IVA, el
40% dels impostos especials i el 100% d'altres impostos?
Escolti, molt millor del que teniem quan negociàvem amb vostès. Per tant, home, una mica
d'objectivitat en la informació.
(With your lot it we had to move Heaven and Earth to get that 15% of the income tax
(argument 1 of the impliciticit conclusion: in the past you didn't want the best
financing system) And now you say that we don't have the best financing system, when
have (i.e. Catalonia receives) 33% of income tax, 35% of the VAT, 40% of special taxes and
100% of other taxes (argument 2: now you've changed your mind).
Look here, that's much better than what we had when we negociated with you. So, come on,
[let's have] a bit of objectivity in your information (conclusion: you (your party)
change your mind).)
In addition to
keeping track of the argumentative orientations, it is also worthwhile noting that in all
interventions constructed by speakers in a dialogue, argumentative interventions or
otherwise, there can be several different speech acts, of which one will always be the
directive (DA) while others are optional and act as subordinates (SA). Thus, "Do
come, we'll have a good time" has two acts, of which "Do come" is the
directive and "we'll have a good time" the subordinate. In the corpus we found
these instances, with one directive and two subordinates.
vostès ens va costar déu i ajuda treure el 15% de l'IRPF.
És com si
els hi haguéssim arrencat un queixal en aquell moment, quan vostès governaven, no?
lot it we had to move Heaven and Earth to get that 15% of the
It was as if
we'd pulled one of your teeth out, at that time, when you were in
tranquil, que el senyor Mas ja li acaba de dir que el seu Estatut no
està per la sobirania, tots contents i tots pel camí de sempre.
Mr Mas has just told you that his Statute isn't to do with sovereignty,
so everybody happy and on the same road as ever.)